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小升初英语语法大全
时间:2016-8-28 来源: 作者: 浏览:1126

一、 名 词
表示某一事物,有具体的和抽象的之分。分为可数名词和不可数名词。
强调:不可数名词都默认为单数,所以总是用is或者was;最好不要根据some、any、a lot of等词去作判
断,以免受误导。
1、可数名词如何变“复数形式”:
a.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds ;读音:清辅音后读[s],浊辅音和
元音后读[z]。
b.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches ;读音:[iz]。
c.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries ;读音:[z]。
d.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives ,thief-thieves;读音:[z]。
e.以“o”结尾的词,分两种情况
1)有生命的+es  读音:[z]  如:mango-mangoes  tomato-tomatoes  hero-heroes
2) 无生命的+s   读音:[z]  如:photo-photos     radio-radios
f. 不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, 
snowman-snowmen, mouse-mice, child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish,
people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
  2、不可数名词没有复数。如果要计算不可数名词所表达的数量,就得在数词和不可数名词之间加上“量
词+of”。例如:a glass of water, a piece of paper, a bottle of juice
判断步骤:
                                                  ↗如是am、is或was→原形
读句子→读该单词→认识该单词→理解意思→看be动词
                                                  ↘如是are或were→加s或es
练一练:
1、写出下列各词的复数。
I _________  him _________  this _______   her ______     watch _______   mango_______child _______ photo ________ diary ______   day________  foot________ dress ________ tooth_______
sheep ______   box_______  strawberry _____ thief _______ engineer______ peach______
sandwich ______   man______   woman_______  leaf_______   people________
2、用所给名词的正确形式填空。
(1)Are there two                ( box ) on the table?
(2)I can see some                 ( people ) in the cinema.
(3)How many                 ( day ) are there in a week?
(4)Here’re five                ( bottle ) of                  ( juice ) for you.
(5)This                ( violin ) is hers. Those                ( grape ) are over there.


二、冠  词
冠词是一种虚词,不能独立使用,通常放在名词的前面,分为“不定冠词”和“定冠词”两种。
1、不定冠词:a、an。用在单数名词前,表示“一个,一件……”。an用在以元音“音素”开头的单词前。如:
an e-mail, an orange, an old man, an English watch, an hour…
2、定冠词:the。用在单数或者复数名词前。the没有具体意思,有时翻译为这、那。它的基本用法:
  (1)用来表示特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。如:The map on the wall is new.
  (2)表示说话者双方都知道的人或事物。如:Look at the picture, please.
  (3)表示再次提到前面谈过的人或事物。如:This is a stamp. The stamp is beautiful.
  (4)用在表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the sun太阳  the moon月亮  the earth地球
  (5)用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。如:the Great Wall长城
  (6)用在江河、湖海等专有名词前。如:the Changjiang River长江
  (7)此外,序数词、形容词最高级、乐器名称等词前面和一些习惯用语中一般都用定冠词the。如:
the first day, the best boy, play the piano, in the same class
确定用a、an还是the时可根据汉语意思。
练一练:
1、用a或an填空。
        ¬¬____ “U”         ____ ice-cream            ____  goalkeeper           ____ teapot            ____apple
       ____office     ____English book        ____umbrella        ____unit               ____hour           
2、根据需要,填写冠词a,an或the。
(1)Who is ____girl behind ____tree?
(2) ____old man has two children, ____ son and ____daughter.
(3)This is  ____ orange.   ____ orange is Lucy’s.
(4)He likes playing ____guitar. We have ____same hobby.
(5)We all had____good time last Sunday.
(6)She wants to be____doctor.


三, 数 词
我们学过两类:基数词和序数词。基数用于表示数量多少,而基数词用于表示次序,常在日期中出现。区别:基数词前面没有“the”;序数词前一定要有“the”。
1、超过二十以上的两位数需要在个位和十位之间加上“-”。如:21  twenty-one
2、三位数以上的则需要在百位数后再加上and。如:101  a/one hundred and one
3、用基数词来修饰可数名词时,一定别忘了它的复数形式。如:十八个男孩  eighteen boys
4、用基数词修饰不可数名词时,如是复数,变它的量词为复数。
如:两碗米饭  two bowls of rice
5、序数词一般加“th”,特殊的有:first, second, third, fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth以及二十及二
十以外的整十:twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth… “第几十几”:前面整十不变,后面“几”改为序
数词。如:88  eighty-eighth
练一练:
1、请翻译下列短语。
(1)60名学生                              (2)15本英语书                             
(3)九杯凉水                               (4)4个孩子                               
(5)12月31                                 (6)6月2日                                
(7)第九周                                  (8)40年前                                 
(9)11+7                                     (10)上学第一天                           
2、把下列基数词改成序数词。
one---                      two---                       three---                      nine---                
fourteen---                     twenty---                      thirty-five---                     eighty-one

 

四、代  词
代词有两种:人称代词和物主代词。
1、人称代词分为:第一、第二、第三人称,且有单复数之分。
2、人称代词的主格在句中做主语,一般用在动词前(疑问句除外);宾格在句中做宾语,多 
用于动词、介词后。
3、形容词性物主代词起形容词的作用,后面一定要跟名词,表示该名词是属于谁的。
4、名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词。如:
   This is my bag. = This is mine.  That is her ruler. = That is hers.
一般看后面有没有名词,如有,就用形容词性物主代词;如无,就用名词性物主代词。
    请牢记下表:
 
  单数   复数
人称  代词 主格 I you he she it   we you they
 宾格 me you him her it  us you them
物主  代词 形容词性 my your his her its  our your their
 名词性 mine yours his hers its  ours yours theirs

练一练:
1、按要求写出相应人称代词。
I(宾格)_______              she(形容词性物主代词)_______             we(名词性物主代词)_______
he(复数)_______            us(单数)_______            theirs(主格)_______ its(宾格)_______
2、想一想,把下表补充完整。
 人称代词 物主代词
 单数 复数 单数 复数
 主格 宾格 主格 宾格 形容词性 名词性 形容词性 名词性
第一人称  me  us   our 
第二人称 you  you     
第三人称 he   them his  their 
  her      
  it    its  

3、用所给词的适当形式填空。
1)That is not _________ kite. That kite is very small, but _________ is very big. ( I )
2)The dress is _________. Give it to _________. ( she )
3)Is this _________ watch? ( you ) No, it’s not _________ . ( I )
4)_________ is my brother. ________ name is Jack. Look! Those stamps are _________. ( he )
5)_________ dresses are red. ( we ) What colour are _________? ( you )
6)Show _________ your kite, OK? ( they )
7)I have a beautiful cat. _________name is Mimi. These cakes are _________. ( it )
8)Are these ________ tickets? No, ________ are not _________. ________ aren’t here. ( they )
9)Shall _________ have a look at that classroom? That is _________ classroom. ( we )
10)_________ is my aunt. Do you know _________ job? _________is a nurse. ( she )
11)Where are _________? I can’t find _________. Let’s call _________ parents. ( they )
12)Don’t touch _________. _________is not a cat, _________ is a tiger! ( it )
13)_________ sister is ill. Please go and see _________. ( she )
14)The girl behind _________ is our friend. ( she )

五、形容词、副词

1、形容词表示某一事物或人的特征,副词表示某一动作的特征。形容词和副词有三种形式:原形、比较
级、最高级。比较级:+er  最高级:the …+est
两个重要特征:as……as中间一定用原形,than的前面一定要+er。
2、形容词、副词比较级的规则变化如下:
(1)一般直接+er。如:tall - taller, fast - faster   单音节词如果以-e结尾,只加-r。如:late - later
(2)重读闭音节词如末尾只有一个辅音字母,须双写这个字母,再加-er。如:big - bigger, fat - fatter
(3)以辅音字母加-y结尾的词,变y为i,再加-er。如:heavy - heavier, early - earlier
(4)双音节和多音节词的比较级应在原级前加more构成。如:beautiful - more beautiful,
     careful - more careful, quietly - more quietly, interesting - more interesting
(5)有些不规则变化的,须逐一加以记忆。如:good/well – better, bad/ill – worse, many/much – more, far – farther/further, old – older/elder…

练一练:
1、写出下列形容词、副词的比较级。
big                    good                   long                    tall                     old              
short                  thin                    heavy                   young                  fat             
light                  strong                   high                    far                     low             
early                  late                     well                    fast                    slow   

2、用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。
1) I can swim as _______ ( fast ) as the fish, I think.
2) Look! His hands are _______  ( big ) than mine.
3) I think you do these things_______ ( well ) than your classmates.
4) Whose bag is _______ ( heavy ), yours or mine?
5) Does Jim run as _______(slow ) as David? Yes, but Mike runs_______ ( slow ) than them.
6) You have seven books, but I have _______ ( many ) than you. I ha ve ten.
7) I jump _______ ( far ) than some of the boys in my class.
8) I’m very_______ ( thin ), but she’s _______ ( thin ) than me.
9) It gets _______and_______ ( warm ) when spring comes here.

 

 

 

 

六、介  词

1、一种虚词。不能单独作句子成分,它只有跟它后面的宾语一起构成介词短语,才能在句子中起作用。
有:in, on, under, with, behind, about, near, before, after, for, to, up, down, from, in front of, out of,
from…to…, at the back of…
2、表示时间的介词有:at, on, in。(1)at表示“在某一个具体的时间点上”,或用在固定词组中。如:at ten 
o’clock, at 9:30 a.m., at night, at the weekend…(2)on表示“在某日或某日的时间段”。如:on Friday, on the
first of October, on Monday morning…(3)in表示“在某一段时间(月份、季节)里”。如:in the afternoon,
in September, in summer, in 2005…
3、in一词还有其他的固定搭配,如:in blue(穿着蓝色的衣服),in English(用英语表达),take part in(参
加)。


练一练:
1、选用括号内恰当的介词填空。
1) What’s this _______ ( at, on, in ) English?
2) Christmas is _______ ( at, on, in ) the 25th of December.
3) The man_______ ( with, on, in ) black is Su Hai’s father.
4) He doesn’t do well  _______ ( at, on, in ) PE.
5) Look at those birds  _______ ( on, in ) the tree.
6) We are going to meet  _______ ( at, on, in ) the bus stop  _______ ( at, on, in ) half past ten.
7) Is there a cat    _______ ( under, behind, in ) the door?
8) Helen’s writing paper is  _______ ( in, in front of ) her computer.
9) We live _______ ( at, on, in ) a new house now.
10) Does it often rain   _______ ( at, on, in ) spring there?
2、圈出下列句子中运用不恰当的介词,并将正确的答案写在横线上。
1) Jim is good in English and Maths.               2) The films were in the ground just now.         
3) They are talking to their plans.                4) How many students have their birthdays on May?          
5) Women’s Day is at the third of March.           6) I can jog to school on the morning.          
7) Did you water trees at the farm?                8) Can you come and help me on my English?          
9) I usually take photos in Sunday morning.       10) What did you do on the Spring Festival?          

七、动  词

这里所说的动词是指各种动词总称,其中包括be动词、情态动词、助动词、行为动词(就是我们平时总说的那种动词)。
动词、名词和形容词不太容易区分,如不能一眼看出,可用如下方法:
先用“一(量词)”(如:一个、一张等)和这个词连起来说,如说得通,一般认为是名词;说不通再用“很”去判断,就是把“很”和为个词连起来说,说得通一般就是形容词;都说不通就是动词。(目前我们学过的,以后可能不同)(另外一些很明显的,如人称代词、数词、情态动词等一下就可以知道)

 1、be动词( am, is, are, was, were )
1)am—was, is –was, are--were 口诀:我用am, 你用are, is用在他她它,所有复数全用are。
2)肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher. She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) 
long. Her eyes are(not) small.
3)一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.
Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.
4)be动词的否定形式:am not(没有缩写形式),are not = aren’t ,is not = isn’t 。

用恰当的be动词填空。
练一练:
    1、用be动词的适当形式填空。
1)I ______ a boy. ______ you a boy? No, I _____ not.       2)The girl______ Jack's sister.
3)The dog _______ tall and fat.                                4)The man with big eyes _______ a teacher.
5)______ your brother in the classroom?                          6)How _______ your father?
7)Mike and Liu Tao ______ at school.                            8)Whose dress ______ this?
9)Whose socks ______ they?                          10)Who ______ I?  
11)The jeans ______ on the desk.
12)Here ______ a scarf for you.                                13)Here ______ some sweaters for you.
14)The black gloves ______ for Su Yang.                  15)This pair of gloves ______ for Yang Ling.
16)The two cups of milk _____ for me.                          17)Some tea ______ in the glass.
18)Gao shan's shirt _______ over there.                         19)My sister's name ______Nancy.
20)______ David and Helen from England?                 21)There ______ a girl in the room.
22)There ______ some apples on the tree.                   23)_______ there any apple juice in the bottle?
24)There _______ some bread on the plate.                 25)You, he and I ______ from China.
26)There _______ a boy, two girls, three men and ten women in the park.

2、助动词( do, does, did )
do, does用于一般现在时,其过去式did用于一般过去时。它们通常用在疑问句和否定句中。它们的否定形式:do not = don’t, does not = doesn’t, did not = didn’t。
注意:在一般现在时中,does用于第三人称单数,其余一律用助动词do;助动词do, does, did后面一定要用动词原形。


1、用适当的助动词填空。
1) ______you like this magazine?             
2) The girl______like bread for breakfast.
3) ---What ______ she ______ at the weekends? ---She usually plays games with her friends.
4) ---Wha______ you do last Sunday? ---I wrote to my friend.
5) ---Did you see a Beijing opera? ---No, I ______.
6) He ______not visit a farm last National Day holiday.  
7) They______ not like playing volleyball.
8) --- ______Jim have a picnic with his family every Saturday? ---Yes, he         .
9)       ______Helen and Yang Ling go to school on foot every day?
10) ---How many kites ______we have? ---We have ten.

2、找出下列句子中的错误,将序号填入题前括号内,并改正。
(      ) 1)           Did you had a big lunch with your family last Spring Festival?
                       A         B                   C
(      ) 2)           ---What do the boy have in his pencil-box? ---He has a rubber.
                                  A            B                                 C
(      ) 3)        They doesn’t like the film. 
                  A      B      C      
(      ) 4)        Do Jim get up at six everyday?
                       A        B                C
(      ) 5)         Don't giving the ball to Liu Tao.
                        A    B               C

3、情态动词
情态动词也是一类特殊的动词,平时我们不把它说成是动词。情态动词可以和行为动词同时出现在同一个句子中。
我们现在学过的情态动词有:can、could、shall、should、will、would、may、might 、must。
注意:情态动词后动词总是用原形。(不受其他任何条件影响)
其否定形式:can not = can’t, must not = mustn’t, …   注意:may not和shall not(无缩写形式)
练一练:
选择填空。
(      ) 1) The sign on the wall means you  ¬¬¬¬¬______stay away from the building.
          A. must           B. can’t           C. shouldn't
(      ) 2) How many books ______ you see on the desk?   A. may     B. can     C. should
(      ) 3) It means you  ______ make noise in the library.  A. should    B.. shouldn't   C. can
(      ) 4) --- ______you like a glass of milk? --- Yes, please.  A. May    B. Could   C. Would
(      ) 5) --- ______you see the sign over there? --- Sorry, I can’t.  A. Can  B. Can’t  C. Should
(      ) 6)  ______ we go to the park by bus?       A. May       B. Must       C. Shall


  4、行为动词
   就是我们平时上课时说的动词,表示某一动作或行为。如:sweep、live等。行为动词我们已学过它们的四种形式:原形、第三人称单数+s/es、现在分词(也叫动名词)+ing、过去式+ed。
    (1)动词第三人称单数变化规则:
A、一般直接加“s”,如:play – plays, visit – visits, speak – speaks ;
B、以“s”,“x”,“sh”,“ch”结尾时,加“es”,如:catch – catches, watch – watches ;
C、以“辅音字母+y”结尾时,变“y”为“i”再加“es”,如:carry – carries, study – studies 。
(2)现在分词(动名词)构成规则:
A、一般直接加“ing”,如:go – going, do – doing, look – looking ;
B、以不发音的“e”结尾的单词,去“e” 加“ing”,如:take – taking, make – making, have – having ;
C、以重读闭音节结尾的词,如末尾只有一个辅音字母,需要双写这个字母再加“ing”,如:
put – putting, stop – stopping, run – running, get – getting, swim – swimming, sit – sitting, begin – beginning,
jog – jogging, forget – forgetting 。
(3)过去式构成规则:
A、一般直接加“ed”,如:plant – planted, visit – visited, pick – picked ;
B、以不发音字母“e”结尾,直接加“ed”,如:like – liked, hope – hoped, taste – tasted ;
C、以“辅音字母+y”结尾时,变“y”为“i”再加“ed”,如:try – tried, carry – carried, study – studied ;
D、有些动词要双写最后一个字母,再加“ed”,如:stop – stopped ;
E、还有很多动词的过去式是不规则的,请记忆:
是-am(be)-was-being;          是-are(be)-were-being;        是-be-was, were-being;
成为-become-became-becoming; 开始-begin-began-beginning;   弯曲-bend-bent-bending;
吹-blow-blew-blowing;         买-buy-bought-buying;        能-can-could-----;
捕捉-catch-caught-catching;   选择-choose-chose-choosing;   来-come-came-coming;
切-cut-cut-cutting;做-do, does-did-doing;画-draw-drew-drawing;饮-drink-drank-drinking;吃-eat-ate-eating;感觉-feel-felt-feeling;发现-find-found-finding;飞-fly-flew-flying;忘记-forget-forgot-forgetting;
得到-get-got-getting;给-give-gave-giving;走-go-went-going;成长-grow-grew-growing;
有-have, has-had-having;听-hear-heard-hearing;受伤-hurt-hurt-hurting;保持-keep-kept-keeping;
知道-know-knew-knowing;学习-learn-learned, learnt-learning;允许,让-let-let-letting;躺-lie-lay-lying;
制造-make-made-making;可以-may-might----;意味-mean-meant-meaning;会见 -meet-met-meeting;
必须-must-must----;放置-put-put-putting;读-read-read-reading;骑、乘-ride-rode-riding;
响、鸣-ring-rang-ringing;跑-run-ran-running;说-say-said-saying;看见-see-saw-seeing;将-shall-should----;唱歌-sing-sang-singing;坐下-sit-sat-sitting;睡觉-sleep-slept-sleeping;说-speak-spoke-speaking;
度过-spend-spent-spending 。

练一练:
1、写出下列动词的第三人称单数。
drink __________go ____________stay __________make __________look __________have _________
pass __________carry __________come ___________watch __________plant _________fly ________
study ________brush _________do ___________teach____________ take__________ see__________
 
2、写出下列动词的现在分词。
put __________give __________fly _________get  ________dance ________sit_________ run ________
plant _________take ___________swim _________ask ___________stop __________take _________
write __________have __________smoke _________ think__________ want__________ tell__________

3、写出下列动词的过去式。
is\am _________fly _______plant ________are ________drink _________play _______go ________
make ________does _________dance ________worry ___________ask ________taste _________
eat __________draw ________put ______throw ________kick _________pass _______do  ________

4、用动词的适当形式填空。
(1)I ______to school from Monday to Friday. My brother often _______to school with me. Yesterday we   
_______to school together. We like ________to school very much.      ( go )
(2)They usually _______lunch at home. But last week, they ____lunch at school.     ( have )
(3)That______my English book. It _____new. But now it _____not here. It ______there a moment ago.  ( be )
(4)My sister likes ________very much. She often _______at our school festival. Last term, she _______a lot of
songs in the school hall. She _____beautifully.    ( sing )
(5)What _____ he usually ______on Sunday?  He usually ______his homework. Look!
He __________his homework now.  ______he _______his homework last Sunday?
Yes, he_______.  ( do )
 (6)Do people usually_______ moon cakes at Mid-autumn Festival? Yes, they do. Did you _______moon cakes
last Mid-autumn Festival? Yes, I did. I _______a lot of delicious moon cakes. ( eat )

 


八、there/here be结构
1、there be结构表示“某时、某地存在着什么事物或人”,包括there is、there are、there was、there were。
here be结构与它类似,用法也完全相同,只不过是表示“这里存在着什么事物或人”。
2、和have、has、had的区别:
(1)There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人) ;而have、has、had表示:某人拥有某物。
(2)在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is;主语是复数,be 动词用are;如有几件物品,be 动
词根据最近be 动词的那个名词决定——“就近原则”。
(3)there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。
(4)there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。
(5)some和any在there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。
(6)and 和or 在there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。
(7)针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语?
 How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语?
(8)针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: What’s + 介词短语?
(9)There be结构一般用在句子的开头,而have等词只能用于某一个主语后面。

练一练:
1、用恰当的be动词填空。
1) There ______ four seasons in a year.         
2) There  ______not any trees two years ago.
3) ---  ______there a post office near your school? ---Yes, there  ______.
4) ---How many stops ______there? ---There______only one.
5) There ______not any stamps on the envelope.    
6)  ______ there any birds in the tree?
7) There______  a shopping centre near our school last year. But now there______ no one.
8) There ______only three of us: my dad, my mum and me.  
9) Here ______some bread for you.
10) In New York, there  ______ a lot of rain in spring.

2、选用“have, has, had, there is, there are, there was, there were”填空。
1) I ______a good father and a good mother.         2)  ______ a telescope on the desk.
3) He ______a tape-recorder.                         4)  ______a basketball in the playground.
5) They ______ a nice garden.                        
6) My father ______ a story-book last year.
7)  ______a reading-room in the building?            
8) What does Mike ______?
9) ______any books in the bookcase?           
10) How many students ______in the classroom?
11)  ______a story-book on the table a moment ago.     
12) What do you ______?
13) My parents ______  some nice pictures.        
14)   ______ some maps on the wall.
15)  ______   a map of the world on the wall.      
16) David’s friends ______ some tents.
17) __________ many children on the hill.
九、some,any的用法
some用于肯定句;any用于否定句和一般疑问句。请注意看例句后扩号中说明的用法。
例:There is some water in the glass. (肯定句)  
There are some flowers in the garden. (肯定句)
There aren’t any lamps in the study.(否定句)
Are there any maps on the wall?(一般疑问句)
Would you like some orange juice? (希望得到肯定回答)
Do you want to take any photos at the party? (一般疑问句)

练一练:
选用some或any填空。
1) There isn’t ______milk in the fridge.           2) I can see______cars, but I can’t see______buses.
3) He has ______ friends in England.              4) Were there  ______fruit trees on the farm?
5) Here are  ______presents for you.           6) Does Tom want to take ______ photos?
7) Is there______rice in the kitchen?            8) There are______new buildings in our school.    
9)---Would you like______ cakes? ---No, I’d not like ______cakes, but I’d like ______coffee.
10) ---Are there______pictures on the wall? ---No, there aren’t ______pictures.

十、动词不定式
1、to加动词原形构成一种非谓语形式,在这里不是介词,无词义。
如:I want to make a New Year card.               我想制作一张新年贺卡。
     Would you like to have a picnic with us?         你愿意和我们一起去野餐吗?
2、to保留原来动词的一些特征,它可以带自己的宾语和状语等。
如:To get there faster, you can take bus No.5.        想快一点到那儿,你可以坐5路车。
3、to前有时带疑问词what, when, where, which, why, how等。
如:He’s asking Yang Ling how to get there.          他正在问杨玲怎样到达那里。
总而言之,一定要记住:to后面用动词原形。

练一练:
    1、用扩号中所给动词的适当形式填空。
1) People would like¬¬¬¬¬________( go ) to farms in the countryside.      2) It’s time ¬¬¬¬¬________ ( have ) lunch
3) I want  ¬¬¬¬¬________ ( buy ) some presents for my friends.           4) The thief began  ¬¬¬¬¬________ ( run ).
5) Please shouw me how¬¬¬¬¬________ ( go ) to the shopping centre.       6) Would you like ¬¬¬¬¬________ ( join ) us? 
7) Don’t forget¬¬¬¬¬________ ( write ) “Happy New Year”.             8) She was very glad¬¬¬¬¬________ ( see ) them.
9) Please remember¬¬¬¬¬________ ( close ) the windows before you go home.
10) I’m sorry¬¬¬¬¬________ ( hear ) that.
2、圈出下列句子中的错误,并改正。
1) Would you like go camping with us?                    2) Helen, show ux how drawing a square.              
3) I want to writes a letter to my penfriend.                   4) It’s time for us go to school.                     
5) Liu Tao wants to showing Peter’s photos to his mum.
十一、动名词
其实就是动词的“现在分词”。它既有“名词性质”(可作主语),又具有动词性质(可带宾语)。
如:Please keep quiet in the reading room. 还有我们的一些课题:Asking the way中是“名词性质”;
My hobby is collecting stamps.中是“动词性质”,带了宾语stamps.
 
1、remember(记住)后面跟动名词,表示“记得做过某事”;跟to+动词原形,表示“记得要去做某事”。如:
I remember posting the letter today.         我记得今天把信寄走了。
Please remember to post the letter today.     请记住今天要把信寄走。
2、forget(忘记)后面跟动名词,表示“忘记做过某事(实际做过)”;跟to+动词原形,表示“忘记去做某事(实际没做)”。如:
I forget doing homework this morning.       我忘记今天早上做过作业了。
I forget to do homework this morning.        我忘记今天早上做作业了。
3、stop(停止)后面跟动名词,表示“停止做某事”;跟to+动词原形,表示“停止正在做的事,而去做别的事”。如:
Stop smoking, please.                          请不要吸烟。
We are tired. Let’s stop to have a rest.        我们累了,让我们停下来休息一下。
4、like(喜欢)后面跟动名词,表示一个人的爱好和习惯,意思是“喜欢干某事”;跟to+动词原形,常用于would like to do something,表示“某人想要、愿意干某事”。如:
  I like taking a walk after supper every day.    我喜欢每天晚饭后去散步。
  I would like to have some chips.              我想要吃些薯条。
练一练:
1、用扩号内所给动词的适当形式填空。
1)  ¬¬¬¬_________( swim ) is not as fast as running.               
2) It’s sunny today. Let’s go ¬¬¬¬_________ ( fish ).
3) Do you like¬¬¬¬_________ ( read ) English in the morning?     
4) Are you good at ¬¬¬¬_________ ( dance )?
5) Where is the  ¬¬¬¬_________ ( shop ) centre?         
6) Would you like to go  ¬¬¬¬_________  ( jog ) with me?
7) My hobby is  ¬¬¬¬_________ ( play ) football.        
8) Su Hai likes ¬¬¬¬_________ ( watch ) cartoons on Sundays.

2、选择扩号内动词的适当形式填空。
1) I’m sorry ¬¬¬¬_________ ( hearing, to hear ) that.   
2) Jim is good at¬¬¬¬_________ ( swimming, to swim ).
3) Shall we go¬¬¬¬_________ ( skating, to skate )?   
4) Today, my work is  ¬¬¬¬_________ ( looking, to look ) after the baby.
5) I’m going ¬¬¬¬_________ ( flying, to fly ) a kite in the playground.
6) I like  ¬¬¬¬_________ ( playing, to play ) basketball after school.
7) Would you like¬¬¬¬_________   ( going, to go ) to the Great Wall?
8) Jim is asking Liu Tao how     ¬¬________ ( getting, to get ) to the History Museum.

 

 

十二、时间和日期的表达
1、有两种时间表达法:
A)直接读写数词。如:9:15 nine fifteen  10:30 ten thirty  11:45 eleven forty-five
7:05 seven o five  2:25 two twenty-five  5:55 five fifty-five
B)借助past和to来表达。past一般用于30分钟以内(含30分钟)的时间表达;to一般用于超过30分钟的时间表达。一刻钟可以用a quarter表示,半小时可以用half表示。
如:9:15 a quarter past nine  10:30 half past ten  11:45 a quarter to twelve
     7:05 five past seven  2:25 twenty-five past two  5:55 five to six
注意:询问时间可用句型“What’s the time?”或者“What time is it?”。

2、日期的表达:the+序数词+of+月份。如:the third of June六月三日
注意:询问日期可用句型“What date is it today?”或者“What’s the date today?”。

练一练:
1、用两种方法表达下列时间。
6:45                                                                 1:58                                       
9:05                                                                  3:22                                         
5:50                                                                   8:30                                         
2、用英语表达下列日期。
五月一日                                    九月十日                                三月八日                  
四月五日                                    七月九日                                八月三日                  
一月十五日                                 六月二日                               十二月二十五日                  
3、同义句转换,每空一词。
1) ---What’s the time? ---It’s eleven forty-five.
  --- ___________is it? ---It’s  ___________ .
2) It’s seven o five. It’s time for breakfast.
  It’s__________    _. It’s time  ___________.
3) ---What’s the date today? ---It’s 1st October.
  ---  ___________is it today? ---It’s ___________

 


十三、名词所有格
1、有生命的名词所有格:
A)单数后加“ ’s ”,如:Su Hai’s twin sister苏海的双胞胎妹妹    Jim’s family吉姆的一家
B)以“ s ”结尾的复数名词,只需加“ ’ ”,如:Teachers’ Day教师节   the twins’ parents
C)不以“ s ”结尾的复数名词,则仍需加“ ’s ”,如:Children’s Day儿童节
  注意:表示两人或几人共有的物品,只需在最后一人名后加“ ’s ”,如:Ben and Jim’s book

2、无生命的名词所有格,一般与“ of ”构成短语。如:
a photo of his family    他家的一张照片            the colour of her skirt    她的短裙的颜色


练一练:
翻译下列词组:
大卫的叔叔                                       我妹妹的邮票
妇女节                                              老师们的办公室                  
他笔友的信                                          这本书的名字                   
双胞胎的书房                                        孩子们的爱好 
邮局的大门           


十四、句子的种类

类别 例句 用法 标点
陈述句 肯定 This is a bag.       I like spring. 描述一件事情或者说明说话人的看法 .
类别 例句 用法 标点
陈述句 否定 I can’t see a bag over there.     I don't know. 描述一件事情或者说明说话人的看法 .


句 一般 Are you a student?      Do you like puppets?
Can you speak English? 用于提出问题 ?
 特殊 when什么时间;who谁;whose谁的;where在哪里;which哪一个;why为什么;what什么;what time什么时间;what colour什么颜色;what about……怎么样;what day星期几;what date什么日期;what for为何目的;how怎样;how old多大岁数;how many数量多少;how much多少钱;how about……怎么样;how far多远  
 选择 Is your friend a boy or a girl?  
 反意 It’s a fine day, isn’t it?  
祁使句 肯定 Put it here. 表示命令、建议或请求 .或!
 否定 Don’t look at the noticeboard.  
感叹句 How smart the scarf is!    What a smart scarf!
How smart the scarves are! What smart scarves! 表示惊讶、喜悦、赞美、厌恶或愤怒等强烈感情 ?

 


练一练:
 1、填入适当的疑问词。
1)  _______wallet is it? It’s mine.   
2) _______is the Christmas Day? It’s on the 25th of December.
3)  _______is the diary? It’s under the chair.   
4) _______ is the boy in blue? He’s Mike.
5)   _______are the earphones? They are 25 yuan.   
6) _______is the hair dryer? It’s blue.
7)  _______is it today? It’s Sunday.   
8) _______was it yesterday? It was the 13th of October.
9)  _______this red one? It’s beautiful.  
10) _______is it from here? It’s about 2 kilometres away.
11) A: Can I have some paper and some crayons? B: _______ ? A: I want to make a kite.
12) _______is your cousin? He’s 15years old.   
13) _______ do you have dinner? At 6 o’clock.
14) _______one is fatter, the blue one or the red one? The blue one.

2、对划线部分提问。
1) I can see eight rubbers in the box.   
_______   _______  _______ can_______see in the box?
2) My father is fine today.    
_______ _____ your father today?
3) Liu Tao is playing football in the playground.
_______ ____ Liu Tao _______ in the playground?
4) The films were on the ground. 
_______  _______  the films?
5) The girl with big eyes is my sister’s friend.                         
_______ _____ _______ sister’s friend?
6) My birthday is on the 9th of September. 
_______ _____  your birthday?
7) I’d like a nice cake for breakfast.
_______  _____ _______ like for breakfast?
8) That’s Nancy’s skirt.  
_______ _______  is that?

3、按要求改写句子。
1) It’s a book.(改为一般疑问句)
___  it a _______ ?
2) My father is in the study.(对划线部分提问)
_______  is _______ father?
3) Do you watch TV every Sunday?(做肯定回答)
_______ , I   _______.
4) This picture is beautiful.(改为以what引导的感叹句)
What  ___ __________picture!
5) Open the door for him.(改为否定句)
_______ open  ___ ___   for  _______ !
6) I have a big present.(对划线部分提问)
_______ do you  _______?

肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句及回答
He is running now. He isn’t running now. ---Is he running now?
---Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.
They are making a puppet. They aren’t making a puppet. ---Are they making a puppet?
---Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.

7) There are some orange trees.(改为单数句子)
There _______  _______ orange  _______ .
8) we are going to see a Beijing opera.(对划线部分提问)
What _______you  _______ ____ do?
9) He has some questions.(改为一般疑问句)
_______ he _______  _______ questions?
10) They visited their relatives and friends last Spring Festival.(改为一般疑问句)
      _____ they _______ their relatives and friends  last Spring Festival? 

 


十五、时态
1、一般现在时
A、当谓语是be动词时,构成为:主语+be动词( am, is, are )+其他。如:I am a student.
B、当谓语是行为动词时,构成有两种:
 (1)主语(非第三人称单数)+动词原形+其他。如:We often watch TV at the weekends.
 (2)主语(第三人称单数)+动词第三人称单数形式+其他。
如:Jim usually goes to the park on Sundays.
C、句型变换:
肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句及回答
They watch TV at six everyday. They don’t watch TV at six everyday.
 ---Do they watch TV at six everyday.
---Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.
She watches TV at six everyday. She doesn’t watch TV at six everyday.
---Does she watch TV at six everyday.
---Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句及回答
They watch TV at six everyday. They don’t watch TV at six everyday. ---Do they watch TV at six everyday.
---Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.
She watches TV at six everyday. She doesn’t watch TV at six everyday. ---Does she watch TV at six everyday.
---Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
 
 
 练一练:
A、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。
1) He often ______( have ) dinner at home.     2) Daniel and Tommy ______ ( be ) in Class One.
3) We ______ ( not watch ) TV on Monday.     4) Nick ______ ( not go ) to the zoo on Sunday.
5)  ____they ______ ( like ) the World Cup?    6) There         ( be ) some water in the bottle.
7) ____your parents  _____( read ) newspapers every day?  
8) Mike______ ( like ) cooking.
9) You always ______ ( do ) your homework well.       10) They ______ ( have ) the same hobby.
11) My aunt  ______ ( look ) after her baby carefully.     12) Liu Tao  ______ ( do ) not like PE.
13) She and I  ______ ( take ) a walk together every evening.
  
B、按要求转换句子,每空一词。
1) Tom likes playing basketball with his friends. (改成否定句)
  Tom_____  ______ playing basketball with his friends.
2) David’s parents often take a walk after supper. (改为一般疑问句并作出否定回答)
  ---  ______David’s parents often  ______ a walk after supper? --- No,  ______  ______.
3) They usually watch TV. (对划线部分提问)
______  ______ they usually ______?
4) She is always a good student. (改为一般疑问句并作出肯定回答)
  ---   ___ ______ always a ______ student? ---  ______ ,  ______ ______ .
5) Simon and Daniel like going skating. (改为否定句)
  Simon and Daniel  ______  ______  going   ______.

2、现在进行时
A、构成形式:主语+be动词+动词的ing形式+其他。
B、判断依据:句中往往有now、look、listen等词。注意:千万不要忘了一定得有be动词。
C、句型变换:
练一练:
A、用所给的动词的正确形式填空。
1) The boy  ______ ______ ( draw ) a picture now.      
2) What______you  ______ ( do ) now?
3) Listen. Some girls  ______ ______ ( sing ) in the classroom.
4) My mother   ______  ______ ( cook ) some nice food now.
5) Look. They ______  ______ ( have ) an English lesson. 
6) They ______  ______ ( not water ) the flowers now.
7) Look! the girls ______  ______ ( dance )in the classroom .
8) What is our granddaughter doing? She ______  ______ ( listen ) to music.
9) ______ Helen  ______  ( wash )clothes? Yes, she is .

B、根据中文,完成句子,每空一词。
1) 刘涛的父亲正在浇花。Liu Tao’s father is ______ ______.
2) 看,孩子们正在操场上踢足球。Look! The children ______ ______ ______ in the playground.
3) 她正在公园里散步吗?是的。--- _____  she______a walk in the park? ---Yes, she______.
4) Jack正在哪读书?在他书房。
  --- ______  ______ Jack ______ the book now? ---He is______ ___ ___ ______.

3、一般过去时
A、构成形式:主语+动词的过去式+其他。
  注意:没有be动词的否定句和疑问句中,用didn’t否定和用did提问后,动词一定要用原形。

B、判断依据:(1)be动词是was、were;(2)动词加ed;(3)有表示过去的时间状语,现在学过的常用的表示过去的时间状语有:just now,a moment,yesterday,last week,last night,last weekend,last year,last month,three days ago,two weeks ago,five years ago…

C、句型变换:

肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句及回答
I was a teacher five years ago. I wasn’t a teacher five years ago. ---Were you a teacher five years ago?
---Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.
They played many games yesterday. They didn’t play many games yesterday. Did they play many games yesterday?
Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.

练一练:
A、用动词的适当形式填空。
1) It_____( be ) Ben’s birthday last Friday.       2) We all_____ ( have ) a good time last night.
3) He _____ ( jump ) high on last Sports Day.      4) Helen _____ ( milk ) a cow on Friday.
5) She likes_____newspapers, but she _____a book yesterday. ( read )
6) He _____football now, but they _____basketball just now. ( play )
7) Jim’s mother _____ ( plant ) trees just now.
8)  _____they _____ ( sweep ) the floor on Sunday? No, they_____.
9) I _______ ( watch ) a cartoon on Monday.        
10) We_____ ( go ) to school on Sunday.

B、按要求改写句子。
1) My father came to the shop just now.(改为否定句)
My father_____  _____ to the shop just now.
2) I watched TV last night.(改为一般疑问句,并作否定回答)
  ---_____you _____ TV last _____? --- _____ , _____ _____.
3) Their teacher told them a story yesterday.(对划线部分提问)
     _____ _____ their teacher_____them yesterday?
4) They were on the farm last Saturday.(改为否定句)
They _____ on the farm last Saturday.
5) David and Liu Tao did their homework together a moment ago.(改为一般疑问句)
    _____ David and Liu Tao_____ _____ homework together _____   _____.

 

 


4、一般将来时
A、构成形式:(1)主语+be going to+动词原形+其他。(2)主语+will+动词原形+其他。
B、判断依据:一个句子中既有be动词,又有going、to和动词,且动词用的是原形,句中
往往有tomorrow、soon、next week等词。
C、句型变换:
肯定句 否定句 一般疑问句及回答
She is going to have a picnic tomorrow. She isn’t going to have a picnic tomorrow. ---Is she going to have a picnic tomorrow?
---Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.
They are going to visit their grandparents next Sunday. They aren’t going to visit their grandparents next Sunday. --Are they going to visit their grand parents next Sunday?
---Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
 
注意:---Where are you going? ---We’re going to Beijing.  问句中不要用到to。

练一练:
    A、根据中文,完成句子,每空一词。
1)我打算明天和朋友去野炊。
  I  _____ _____ _____  have a picnic with my friends. 或者:
I  _____ have a picnic with my friends.
2)下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我想去打篮球。
---What _____ _____ _____ _____next Monday?  ---I ___ _____ ___ play basketball. 或者:
---What _____ you do next Monday? ---I  _____ play basketball.
3)你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。
---   _____ your mother _____ _____ go shopping this _____ ?
---Yes, she _____ . She_____ buy some fruit.
4.)你们打算什么时候见面?
What time _____ you _____ _____ meet?
   
B、改写句子。
1)Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定句)
 Nancy _____ going to go camping.
2)I’ll go and join them.(改否定句)
I _____ go  _____ join them.
3)I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)
_____ _____ _____ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?
4)We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句)
_____ _____ meet at the bus stop at 10:30?
5)She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问)
     _____ _____ she_____ _____ _____ after school?

 

 

时态综合练一练:( 每空根据需要可以填多个词)

1、用所给词的适当形式填空。
1)Today is a sunny day. We _______________  ( have ) a picnic this afternoon.
2)My brother__________ ( go ) to Shanghai next week.
3)Tom often _________( go ) to school on foot. But today is rain. He_____ ( go ) to school by bike.
4)What do you usually do at weekends? I usually_____ (watch) TV and_____ (catch) insects?
5)It’s Friday today. What_____ she_____ ( do ) this weekend?
   She _____  ( watch ) TV and _____ ( catch ) insects.
6)What_____  ( do ) you do last Sunday? I_____ ( pick ) apples on a farm.
    What _____  ( do ) next Sunday? I  __________ ( milk ) cows.
7)Mary __________ ( visit ) her grandparents tomorrow.
8)Liu Tao __________ ( fly ) kites in the playground yesterday.
9)David __________ ( give ) a puppet show next Monday.
10)I __________  ( plan ) for my study now.

2、根据中文,完成句子,每空一词。
1)杨玲正在问高山一些关于公共标志的问题。
   Yang Ling is _____ Gao Shan some __________ about  _____ __________.
2)David最喜爱的科目是英语。
_____ Favourite subject _____ __________.
3)谁跑得快,男孩还是女孩?
Who_____ _____, the boys or the girls?
4)我父亲每天起床都很早,锻炼身体。
My father _____ up_____ and_____ some exercise every day.
5)你们有什么爱好?他喜欢集邮,我喜欢听音乐。
   ---What _____ your  _____ ? ---He _____ _____ stamps and I like__________to music.
6)昨天我们想去参观博物馆,可不认识去的路。我们就问了一个警察,他告诉了我们路线。
    We _____ to_____the museum, but we _____ know _____ _____ _____ there.
We_____ a policeman, and he told _____ the way.
7)Nancy将在音乐会上演奏钢琴吗?
     _____ Nancy  _____ to_____ the _____ _____ the concert?
8)我们开始上课好吗?谁来读生词?
      _____ we _____ our lesson now?
_____  would _____ to _____  the  _____ word?

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